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JAYPEE JOURNALS
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1.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Pharmacovigilance in India and its Impact in Patient Management
Geeta Sharma, Rahat Kumar, Jaswinder Singh, Vikram Bhandari, Narinder Singh
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:27-33] [No of Hits : 621]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0006 | FREE

Abstract

Pharmacovigilance is the pharmacological science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects, particularly the long-term and short-term adverse effects of drugs or treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) established pharmacovigilance Programme for International Drug Monitoring in response to the thalidomide disaster detected in 1961. India joined the WHO adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring program based in Uppsala, Sweden, in 1998. The Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), Directorate General of Health Services, under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, in collaboration with Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ghaziabad, is a National Coordinating Centre (NCC). Adverse drug reaction monitoring centers (AMCs) under the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI) play a vital role in the collection and follow-up of ADR reports from the patients, as drug trials in animals and humans (Phase I–III) do not predict accurately the adverse drug events. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)/liver disease are at risk of enhanced drug-related events. These patients should be closely monitored for any adverse events and it should be reported. Thus, inculcating the habit of ADR reporting will help in generating data specific to Indian population and will contribute toward patient safety. This will also help in modifying the treatment given to the patients, as early identification of ADRs will help in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients.

Keywords: Adverse drug reactions, Pharmacovigilance, Postmarketing.

How to cite this article: Sharma G, Kumar R, Singh J, Bhandari V, Singh N. Pharmacovigilance in India and its Impact in Patient Management. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):27-33.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  MEDICAL ETHICS, LAW AND SOCIETY
Surrogacy: The Need, Usage, Misuse, and the much Needed Rectification Step – The Proposed Surrogacy Bill 2016
Simranpreet Kaur
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:46-49] [No of Hits : 403]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0011 | FREE

Abstract

How to cite this article: Kaur S. Surrogacy: The Need, Usage, Misuse, and the much Needed Rectification Step – The Proposed Surrogacy Bill 2016. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):46-49.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Oral Submucous Fibrosis: An Overview
Ramandeep S Narang, Anterpreet Arora
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:22-26] [No of Hits : 367]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0005 | FREE

Abstract

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic and potentially malignant condition of the oral cavity. It occurs predominantly in India and Southeast Asia. The pathogenesis of OSMF is not well established, but it is believed to be multifactorial. Chewing of betel quid (containing areca nut, tobacco, and slaked lime) has been recognized as one of the most important risk factors. It is characterized by a juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibroelastic changes in the lamina propria and associated epithelial atrophy. The disease affects most parts of the oral cavity as well as the upper third of the esophagus. The abnormal fibrosis causes blanching and stiffness of the mouth, with eventual immobility of the lips, cheeks, tongue, soft palate, and uvula. Treatment of OSMF is difficult; a combination drug treatment is administered. In patients with severe disease, physical therapy and/or surgery is added to drug therapy.

Keywords: Areca nut, Malignant potential, Oral submucous fibrosis, Precancerous.

How to cite this article: Narang RS, Arora A. Oral Submucous Fibrosis: An Overview. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):22-26.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
4.  HEALTH MANPOWER AND MANAGEMENT
Health Manpower Planning
Rajoo S Chhina, Rajdeep S Chhina, Ananat Sidhu, Amit Bansal
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:53-57] [No of Hits : 320]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0013 | FREE

Abstract

Manpower is the most crucial resource toward delivery of health planning. Health manpower refers to people who are trained to promote health, to prevent and to cure diseases, and to rehabilitate the sick. The aim of manpower planning is to make available the right kind of personnel in the right number with appropriate skills at the right place at the right time doing the right job. Various types of health resources are doctors, nurses, pharmacists, lab technicians, radiographer health assistants, health workers, auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM), accredited social health activists (ASHAs), anganwadi workers, trained dais, and so on. Currently, developing countries including India lag behind suggested norms of required health manpower. Presently, India produces 30,000 doctors, 18,000 specialists, 30,000 Ayurveda, Yoga and naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) graduates, 54,000 nurses, 15,000 ANMs, and 36,000 pharmacists annually. This production is not equal across the states, leading to unequal distribution of doctors. Such a skewed distribution results in large gaps in demand and availability. Various reasons for this are skewed production of health manpower, uneven human resource deployment and distribution, disconnected education and training, lack of job satisfaction, professional isolation, and lack of rural experience. The 12th Plan should aim to expand facilities for medical, nursing, and paramedical education; create new skilled health worker categories; enable AYUSH graduates to provide essential health care by upgrading their skills in modern medicine through bridge courses; establish a management system for human resource in health to actualize improved methods for recruitment, retention, and performance; put in place incentive-based structures; create career tracks for professional advancement based on competence; and, finally, build an independent and professional regulatory environment.

Keywords: Health, Manpower, Planning.

How to cite this article: Chhina RS, Chhina RS, Sidhu A, Bansal A. Health Manpower Planning. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):53-57.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  CASE REPORT
Occipitalization of Atlas: A Case Report with its Ontogenic Basis and Review of Literature
Monika Lalit, Sanjay Piplani, Anupama Mahajan, JS Kullar
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:34-37] [No of Hits : 273]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0007 | FREE

Abstract

Introduction: Anatomy of the cervical vertebrae allows free flexion, extension, and rotation, which take place almost entirely in the first two cervical vertebrae. Variation in the articulation of upper cervical spine-like congenital fusion of the atlas to the base of the occiput, i.e., occipitalization of the atlas, is one of the common skeletal abnormalities. Such variations will produce irregular motion and at times a definite instability of the joint involved.

Conclusion: Considering the nature and functional importance of the joints in relation to these bones, the resulting disability is one of the rare occurrences and deserves special attention. Such patients exhibit neurological signs and symptoms usually no sooner than the second decade. Thus, anatomy, variations, and anomalies of the craniocervical junction are of high clinical importance to many specialties like anatomists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, and manipulative therapists, as they markedly influence mobility and stability of the cervical region.

Keywords: Atlas, Cervical region, Craniovertebral joint, Occipitalization.

How to cite this article: Lalit M, Piplani S, Mahajan A, Kullar JS. Occipitalization of Atlas: A Case Report with its Ontogenic Basis and Review of Literature. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):34-37.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
6.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Study of Serum Superoxide Dismutase and Malondialdehyde Levels during Normal Pregnancy
Roopam Bassi, Saurabh Sharma, Kiran Mehta, Manjeet Kaur, Deepinder Kaur
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:1-5] [No of Hits : 262]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0001 | FREE

Abstract

Introduction: Pregnancy is accompanied by a high-energy demand of all body functions and an increased oxygen requirement, which can give rise to increased levels of oxidative stress.

Aims and objectives: The present study was done to assess the levels of oxidative stress in healthy pregnant females by estimating serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and comparing these with nonpregnant females.

Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 88 female subjects in the age group of 20 to 40 years, who were placed in two groups. Group I consisted of 50 healthy nonpregnant females. Group II consisted of healthy pregnant females further subdivided into three subgroups: Group IIa (1st trimester) n = 38, group IIb (2nd trimester) n = 32, and group IIc (3rd trimester) n = 30. The same subjects were followed up till the 3rd trimester. There was a drop in the number of subjects from 38 to 32 in the 2nd trimester and from 32 to 30 in the 3rd trimester due to noncompliance and development of complications of pregnancy. The subjects were assessed for hemoglobin (Hb), MDA, a marker for lipid peroxidation, and SOD, an antioxidant enzyme along with certain physiological parameters like height, weight, body mass index, and blood pressure in the three trimesters.

Results: The levels of SOD and MDA were significantly raised with the progression of pregnancy. There was a fall in Hb levels in the 3rd trimester. But no significant correlation could be drawn between the measured parameters in all the trimesters.

Conclusion: Pregnancy is definitely associated with oxidative stress to the body. Both peroxidation and antioxidation reactions are enhanced during pregnancy. With these findings, we therefore conclude that antioxidant supplements should be prescribed in early pregnancy to prevent the overwhelming of oxidative stress in pregnant females.

Keywords: Malondialdehyde, Pregnant females, Superoxide dismutase.

How to cite this article: Bassi R, Sharma S, Mehta K, Kaur M, Kaur D. Study of Serum Superoxide Dismutase and Malondialdehyde Levels during Normal Pregnancy. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):1-5.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
7.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Comparison of Autonomic Function using Valsalva Ratio, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure in Meditators and Nonmeditators
Kiran, Richa G Thaman, Roopam Bassi, Kawalinder Girgla
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:6-9] [No of Hits : 244]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0002 | FREE

Abstract

Introduction: In recent years, the various health benefits of meditation have been acknowledged by the scientific community as well as by the public. Apart from its physiological benefits, it can also improve the psychological and spiritual well-being. A case–control study was planned to investigate the effect of Rajyoga Meditation on cardiovascular autonomic activity in meditators and nonmeditators.

Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 100 subjects, randomized into two groups: meditators (n=50; age 35.80±7.69 years) and nonmeditators (n=50; age 36.76± 6.38 years). The meditator group practiced meditation for 30 minutes in the morning as well as in the evening. The control group did not practice any type of meditation or relaxation techniques. The cardiovascular parameters – heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and Valsalva maneuver tests – were performed in both the groups in the same environmental conditions. The data were compiled and analyzed using unpaired t test.

Results: The mean values of HR in meditators and the control group were 77.08±5.39 and 80.68±5.71 respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The mean values of SBP in meditators and nonmeditators were 124.60±5.39 and 129.56±4.30 mmHg respectively, while those for DBP were 77.84±4.65 and 80.80±4.78 mmHg respectively. The difference in both was statistically significant. In meditators, Valsalva ratio was 1.60±0.20, while in nonmeditators, it was 1.33±0.13, and the difference was highly significant.

Conclusion: Significant improvement is seen in physiological, cardiac, and parasympathetic parameters in Rajyoga meditators. A shift of the autonomic balance toward the parasympathetic side is seen. By purposefully energizing the parasympathetic system by meditation, we can combat the ill effects of stress and help heal many health conditions.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, Rajyoga meditation, Valsalva ratio.

How to cite this article: Kiran, Thaman RG, Bassi R, Girgla K. Comparison of Autonomic Function using Valsalva Ratio, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure in Meditators and Nonmeditators. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):6-9.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Evaluating the Renoprotective Activity of 4-Methylthiobutyl Isothiocyanate against 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene generated Radical Stress in Male Wistar Rats
Rohit Arora, Sahiba Kukreja, Rahul Mannan, Sakshi Bhushan, Saroj Arora
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:10-14] [No of Hits : 238]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0003 | FREE

Abstract

Aim: An increasing environmental pollution has elevated the number of deleterious pollutants present in the atmosphere. Among these, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) have posed serious threat to the health of both animals and plants. Most of these compounds are genotoxic in nature and an elevated exposure of these carcinogens increases the risk of initiation and promotion of cancer. The low efficacy, specific target sites, and large number of side effects of the available drugs have encouraged researchers to look for an alternate drug with high biological potency. The best alternate for this is the use of medicinal plants and especially their phytochemicals, such as glucosinolate hydrolytic products. A large number of glucosinolate hydrolytic products are available in different plant species, but sulforaphane has emerged as the most potent among them. This important compound is interconverted to 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (4-MTBITC) or erucin in the body of an organism. In contrast to sulforaphane, not much work has been done on the biological properties of 4-MTBITC. The current study, therefore, focuses on evaluating the renoprotective activity of 4-MTBITC on DMBA induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats.

Materials and methods: The bioprotective efficacy of erucin was evaluated in male Wistar rats treated with DMBA using the levels of serum creatinine, urea, sodium, and potassium.

Results: The treatment with erucin significantly ameliorated the DMBA induced stress in male Wistar rats.

Conclusion: Erucin or 4-MTBITC has the potential to impart protection to male Wistar rats against genotoxic carcinogen (DMBA) induced stress.

Keywords: 4-Methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate, 7,12-Dimethylbenz (a)anthracene, Glucosinolates, Rats, Renoprotective, Xenobiotic.

How to cite this article: Arora R, Kukreja S, Mannan R, Bhushan S, Arora S. Evaluating the Renoprotective Activity of 4-Methylthiobutyl Isothiocyanate against 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a) anthracene generated Radical Stress in Male Wistar Rats. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):10-14.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
9.  CASE REPORT
Prominent Accessory Hemiazygos Vein representing Persistence of Cranial Portion of Posterior Cardinal Vein: Embryological Variant
Seema Sehmi
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:40-41] [No of Hits : 228]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0009 | FREE

Abstract

Introduction: The azygos venous system has developed from the postcardinal veins of the embryo, and small parts persist only at the commencement of the azygos vein. Complex embryological development of these veins is a major cause for many possible variations of the azygos system.

Materials and methods: The present study was done in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Amritsar, on a male cadaver aged about 50 years. The thoracic cavity was opened to dissect the azygos system of veins.

Results: The system showed the persistent cranial part of the posterior cardinal vein. This led to the formation of a well-developed venous channel on the left side of the aortic arch and the thoracic aorta. This channel drained the 2nd to 10th left posterior intercostal veins and drained itself into the left brachiocephalic vein (LBV) after crossing the arch of aorta vertically on its right. There was no transvertebral communication between this channel and azygos vein on the right side. The hemiazygos vein (HAV) on the left side was normally formed and immediately drained into the azygos vein by turning to the left. The azygos vein on the right side was also normal.

Conclusion: The presence of such persistent embryological remnant, its position, and approximation to the structures near the arch of aorta should be taken into account to avoid radiological misdiagnosis and surgical complications.

Keywords: Azygos, Cardinal, Embryological, Hemiazygos.

How to cite this article: Sehmi S. Prominent Accessory Hemiazygos Vein representing Persistence of Cranial Portion of Posterior Cardinal Vein: Embryological Variant. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):40-41.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
10.  MEDICAL ETHICS, LAW AND SOCIETY
Informed Consent: A Legal Formality or a Mandate
Navpreet Kaur
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:50-52] [No of Hits : 179]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0012 | FREE

Abstract

Doctor patient relationship which in olden days was a highly revered one has undergone considerable change due to the greater awareness among patients regarding their rights and easy access to litigation process. The profession which was considered the most humble one has transformed into a service and falls under the purview of Consumer Protection act. Informed consent is a concept which gives the person right to pick and choose from the different types of treatment modalities, right to voluntarily suffer any harm which may occur during treatment thereby also decreasing the burden of responsibility which falls upon the doctor’s shoulders to pick the best treatment modality for his patient and to bear the brunt of patient and his relatives if something goes wrong. Thus informed consent is not just a legal formality but a mandate which guarantees not only the best treatment for the patient as per his choice but also safeguards a doctor against unnecessary litigations.

Keywords: Consent, Doctor-Patient relationship, Right to choose, Litigation

How to cite this article: Kaur N. Informed Consent: A Legal Formality or a Mandate. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):50-52.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
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