AMEI's Current Trends in Diagnosis & Treatment

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2018 ) > List of Articles

MEDICAL EDUCATION

Small Group Learning in Otorhinolaryngology Using Clinical Cases in Medical Students

Vanita Sarin

Keywords : Collaborative learning, Learning cycle, Selfdirected learning, Small group learning (SGL)

Citation Information : Sarin V. Small Group Learning in Otorhinolaryngology Using Clinical Cases in Medical Students. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2018; 2 (1):54-57.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0039

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Introduction: Small group learning (SGL) promotes active involvement of learner in the entire learning cycle, well-defined task orientation with achievable specific aims and objectives in a given time and the reflection based on experience and deep learning. The main aim of this study is to determine the qualitative and quantitative effectiveness of SGL for 6th-semester MBBS students posted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology for their clinical postings. Materials and methods: Two sessions of SGL (SGL-1 and SGL-2) were designed and conducted for the students. A pre- and post-test of 15 MCQ questions were used for formative assessment, before and after each SGL session. A feedback questionnaire on five points Likert scale was designed and validated and administered to the students. The data obtained from pre- and post-tests (SGL1 and 2) was statistically analyzed. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis of feedback questionnaire was also done. Results: There was a marked improvement in the scores in the post-session test both in SGL-1and SGL-2.In SGL-1 pretest 48.86%, students scored marks between the range of 6 to 10 while in the post-test about 89.9% students scored between the range of 11 to 15. In SGL-2, 74.19% students scored marks in the range of 6 to 10 in the pretest while in the posttest 82.25% students scored in the range of 11 to 15. In the feedback questionnaire too, students have supported that SGL had enhanced their learning, communication skills and they all were of the opinion that SGL should be recommended in other departments and should be incorporated in the curriculum. Conclusion: Small group learning (SGL) is a profoundly effective method of teaching and learning. SGL sessions provide the productive academic environment, strategy for dynamic and collaborative learning during undergraduate training.


PDF Share
  1. Jones RW. Learning and teaching in small groups: Characteristics, benefits, problems and approaches. Anaesth Intensive Care; 2007.
  2. Barrows HS. The Tutorial Process (Springfield II, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine), 1998.
  3. Sultan AM. Basic steps in establishing effective small group teaching sessions in medical schools. Pak J Med Sci.2013 Jul- Aug; 29(4):1071-1076
  4. J R Crosby, E A Hesketh. Small group learning. Medical teacher Mar 2004,261:16-19.
  5. Muller JH. Increasing the Value of Small-group Learning. Academic Medicine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2000 May;75(5):518.
  6. De Villiers M, Bresick G, Mash B. The value of small group learning: an evaluation of an innovative CPD programme for primary care medical practitioners. Medical Education [Internet]. Wiley; 2003 Sep;37(9):815.821.
  7. Gosh AK. Organising an effective continuous medical education session. Journal of Association of Physicians of India 2008; 56:533-538.
  8. Fryer-Edwards K, Arnold RM, Baile W, Tulsky JA, Petracca F, Back A. Reflective teaching practices : an approach to teaching communication skills in a small-group setting. Acad Med 2006;81(7):638.644.
  9. Wilhelm K, Peel G, Sutton V, Finch A, Sved-Williams A. Small groups for supporting GPs'professional development in mental health disease. an evaluation. Aust Fam Physician 2005;34:791-794.
  10. White M, Michaud G, Pachev G, Lirenman D, Kolenc A, FitzGerald JM. Randomized trial of problem-based versus didactic seminars for disseminating Evidence based guidelines on asthma management to primary care physicians. J Cont Educ Health Prof 2004; 24(4):237-243.
  11. Peloso PM, Stakiw KJ. Small-group format for continuing medical education: a report from the field. J Cont Educ Health Prof 2000; 20(1):27-32.
  12. Cartney, P. Adult learning styles: implications for prac-tice teaching in social work. Social Work Education. 2000;19(6): 609-626.
  13. Ashman AF, Gillies RM. An historical review of the use of groups to promote socialisation and learning. In R.M. 2013.
  14. Ashman AF, Gillies RM., Co-operative learning: The social and intellectual outcomes of learning in groups London: Routledge. pp 1-19.
  15. Jacques D. Teaching and Learning in Small Groups:Learning in Groups: A Handbook for Improving Group Work, Third Edition. London: Kogan 2000.
  16. Spalding B, Ferguson S, Garrigan P, Stewart R. How Effective is Group Work in Enhancing Work based Learning? An evaluation of an education studies course. Journal of Further and Higher Education [Internet]. Informa UK Limited; 1999 Feb;23(1):109.115.
  17. Cress U, Hesse FW. Quantitative Methods for Studying Small Groups. The International Handbook of Collaborative Learning [Internet]. Chapter 5.
  18. Chow BA, Donahue SW, Vaughan MR, McConkey B, Vijayan MM, “Serum immune-related proteins are differentially expressed during hibernation in theAmerican black bear,” PLoS ONE. 2013;8(6).
  19. Virginia B. A Tale of Two Colonies: What Really Happened in Virginia and Bermuda? University of Missouri Press 2011. ISBN 0826272576 pp. 112.
  20. Bydlowska J. Drunk Mom: A Memoir. Doubleday Canada. Penguin Random House publications 2013 ISBN 0385677812 pp. 91.
  21. Pojman P, Pojman L. Food Ethics. Cengage Learning US. Wadsworth Publishing 2011. pp. 128. ISBN 1111772304.
  22. With spirulina, and togethers, we will end child malnutrition in the world Now.” Available from http://www.indiegogo. com/projects/with- spirulina-and-togethers-we-will-endchild- malnutrition-in-the-world-now. Retrieved Dec 16, 2014.
  23. Lucas A, “Programming by early nutrition in man,” in The Childhood Environment and Adult Disease, G. R. Bock and J. Whelan, Eds., Ciba Foundation Symposium 156, JohnWiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1991 pp. 38-55.
  24. McCance RA, Widdowson EM. “The determinants of growth and form,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B— Biological Sciences 1974;185(1078):1-17.
  25. Hermanussen M, M de Los Angeles Roi de Lama, Romero AP, Ruiz CA, Burmeister J, Tresguerres JAF. “Differential catch-up in body weight and bone growth after short-term starvation in rats,” Growth Regulation 1996;6(4):230-237.
  26. Banu MJ, Orhii PB, Mejia W et al.“Analysis of the effects of growth hormone, voluntary exercise, and food restriction on diaphyseal bone in female F344 rats,”Bone. 1999; 25(4):469-480.
  27. Banu J, Orhii PB, Okafor MC, Wang L, Kalu DN. “Analysis of the effects of growth hormone, exercise and food on diaphyseal bone in female F344 rats,” Bone 1999; 25(4): 469-480.
  28. Janiszewski P. Obesity Panacea – [News nutrition, peer reviewed research]:[Janiszewski]; [may 13, 2011] - The Science of Starvation: How long can humans survive without food or water?Available from http://blogs.plos.org/obesitypanacea/ about this blog.
  29. Beresford D. Ten Men Dead. New York: Atlantic Press. 1997. ISBN 0-87113-702-X.
  30. Srimat Bhagvatam. SB 4.8.71 - SB 4.8.79
  31. Attia E. “Anorexia nervosa: current status and future directions,”Annual Review of Medicine 2010;61(1) 425-435.
  32. Rosen JC, Reiter J, and Orosan P, “Assessment of body image in eating disorders with the body dysmorphic disorder examination,” Behaviour Research and Therapy 1995; 33(1):77–84.
  33. Grinspoon S, Miller K, Coyle C et al., “Severity of osteopenia in estrogen-deficient women with anorexia nervosa and hypothalamic amenorrhea,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1999;84(6):2049-2055.
  34. Biller BMK, Saxe V, Herzog D.B., Rosenthal DI, Holzman S, Klibanski A. “Mechanisms of osteoporosis in adult and adolescent women with anorexia nervosa,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1989; 68(3): 548-554.
  35. Grinspoon S, Thomas E, Pitts S et al., “Prevalence and predictive factors for regional osteopenia in women with anorexia nervosa,” Annals of Internal Medicine 2000;133(10): 790-I42.
  36. Rigotti NA, Neer RM, Skates SJ, Herzog DB, Nussbaum SR, “The clinical course of osteoporosis in anorexia nervosa. A longitudinal study of cortical bone mass,” The Journal of the American Medical Association 1991;265(9): 1133-1138.
  37. Baker D, Roberts R, Towell T, “Factors predictive of bone mineral density in eating-disordered women: a longitudinal study,” International Journal of Eating Disorders 2000;27(1): 29-35.
  38. Khosla S, Lufkin EG, Hodgson SF, Fitzpatrick LA, Melton LJ III, “Epidemiology and clinical features of osteoporosis in younindividuals,” Bone 1994;15(5):551-555.
  39. Zipfel S, Seibel MJ, Löwe B, Beumont PJ, Kasperk C, Herzog W. “Osteoporosis in eating disorders: a follow-up study of patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2001;86(11):5227–5233.
  40. Soyka LA, Grinspoon S, Levitsky LL, Herzog DB, Klibanski A. “The effects of anorexia nervosa on bone metabolism in female adolescents,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1999;84(12):4489-4496.
  41. LA Soyka, M. Misra, A. Frenchman et al., “Abnormal bone mineral accrual in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa,”Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2002; 87(9):4177-4185.
  42. MM LaBan, JC Wilkins, AH Sackeyfio, and RS Taylor, “Osteoporotic stress fractures in anorexia nervosa: etiology, diagnosis, and review of four cases,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1995;76(9):884-887.
  43. Y Maugars, J.-M. Berthelot, S. Lalande, C. Charlier, and A. Prost, “Osteoporotic fractures revealing anorexia nervosa in five females,” Revue du Rhumatisme (English Edition) 1996; 63(3):201–206.
  44. Golden NH et al. Resumption of Menses in Anorexia Nervosa. Arch Pediatr Adolesc med 1997;151:16-21.
  45. Audi L et al. Leptin in Relation to Resumption of Menses in Women with Anorexia Nervosa. Mol Psychiatry 1998;4:544-547.
  46. Mehanna HM, Moledina J, Travis J. “Refeeding syndrome: what it is, and how to prevent and treat it”. BMJ 2008; 336: 1495 8. doi:10.1136/bmj.a301.PMC 2440847. PMID 18583681.
  47. “The Physiology and Treatment of Starvation”. US national library of medicine. Retrieved 17 August 2012. chromeextension://mhjfbmdgcfjbbpaeojofohoefgiehjai/index.html
  48. Kreipe R et al. Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Older Children. Pediatrics in Review 1999; 20:12.
  49. Pike KM et al. Cognitive Behavior Therapy in the Posthospitalization. Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa. Am J Pyschiatry 2004; 11:2046-2049.
  50. Bender DA. Carbohydrates of Physiologic Significance. Murray RK, Bender DA, Botham KM, Kenelly PJ, Rodwell VW, Weil PA.. Harpers Illustrated Biochemistry 28th ed. New York:Mc Graw Hill publications; 2009. p 113-120.
  51. Koffler M, Kisch ES. Starvation diet and very-low-calorie diets may Induce insulin resistance and overt diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Complications.1996;10(2):109-12.
  52. Hales CN, Barker DJ The thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Br Med Bull. 2001;60:5-20.
  53. Hales CN, Barker DJ (July 1992). “Type 2 (non-insulindependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis”. Diabetologia. 35 (7): 595-601.
  54. Barker, D.J.P. (1997). “Maternal Nutrition, Fetal Nutrition, and Disease in Later Life”. Nutrition, ‘13’, pp. 807.
  55. Martin, Paul; Bateson, Patrick (1999). Design for a life: How behaviour develops. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224- 05064-8 pp. 110-111.
  56. Barker, DJP. ed. (1992). Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. London: British Medical Journal. ISBN 0-7279-0743-3.
  57. Robinson R (February 2001). “The fetal origins of adult disease: No longer just a hypothesis and may be critically important in south Asia”. Editorial
  58. Mazur A. Why were “starvation diets” promoted for diabetes in the pre-insulin period? Nutrition Journal 2011;10:23.
  59. Goodacre CJ, Kan JY, Rungcharassaeng K. Clinical complications of osseointegrated implants. J Prosthet Dent 1999 May;81(5):537-552.
  60. Kois JC. Predictable single-tooth peri-implant esthetics: five diagnostic keys. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2004 Nov;25(11):895-900.
  61. Evans CD, Chen ST. Esthetic outcomes of immediate implant placements. Clin Oral Implants Res 2008 Jan;19(1):73-80.
  62. Romeo E, Lops D, Rossi A, Storelli S, Rozza R, Chiapasco M. Surgical and prosthetic management of interproximal region with single-implant restorations: 1-year prospective study. J Periodontol 2008 Jun;79(6):1048-1055.
  63. Nagaraj KR, Savadi CR, Savadi AR, Prashanth Reddy GT, Srilakshmi J, Dayalan M, John J. Gingival biotype— prosthodontic perspective. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2010 Mar;10(1):27-30.
  64. Jung RE, Sailer I, Hämmerle CH, Attin T, Schmidlin P. In vitro color changes of soft tissues caused by restorative materials. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2007 Jun;27(3): 251-257.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.