Heterotopic pregnancy is a condition in which an ectopic pregnancy coexists with an intrauterine pregnancy. It can be a life-threatening condition and can be easily missed, with the diagnosis being overlooked. A very high degree of suspicion is required to reach the diagnosis. Some of the known risk factors associated are assisted reproductive techniques, infertility, and previous history of pelvic inflammatory disease. The diagnosis is still challengeable in patients with heterotopic pregnancy without identifiable risk factors and with spontaneous pregnancy and those who usually attend first with uncomplicated heterotopic pregnancy, are usually overlooked.
Creana AA, Syverson C, Seeed k, et al. Pregnancy Related Mortality in the United States, 2011–2013. Obstet Gynecol 2017;130:366–373. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002114.
Sharma, JB. (n.d.). Early Pregnancy Hemorrhage; Textbook of Obstetrics. 2nd ed. New Delhi: APC Publishers; 2020.
Fatema N, Al Badi MM, Rahman M, Elawdy MM. Heterotopic Pregnancy with Natural Conception; A Rare Event that Is Still Being Misdiagnosed: A Case Report. Clin Case Rep 2016;4(3): 272–275. DOI: 10.1002/ccr3.502.
Barrenetxea G, Barinaga-Rementeria L, Lopez de Larruzea A, Agirregoikoa JA, Mandiola M, Carbonero K. Heterotopic Pregnancy: Two Cases and a Comparative Review. Fertil Steril 2007;87(2): 417.e9–15. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.05.085.
Clayton HB, Schieve LA, Peterson HB, et al. A Comparison of Heterotopic and Intrauterine-Only Pregnancy Outcomes after Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the United States from 1999 to 2002. Fertil Steril 2007;87:303–309.
Arsala L, Danso D. Spontaneous Heterotopic Triplet Pregnancy With Tubal Rupture: A Case Report and Literature Review. J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2014;2(2):2324709614531556. DOI: 10.1177/2324709614531556.
Yu Y, Xu W, Xie Z, Huang Q, Li S. Management and Outcome of 25 Heterotopic Pregnancies in Zhejiang, China. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2014;180:157–161. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.04.046.
Aziz M, Arronte J. A Case of Spontaneous Heterotopic Pregnancy in Natural Conception Complicated with Hemoperitoneum. Heliyon 2010;6(2):e03373. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03373.