Introduction: Biomedical waste (BMW) collection and proper disposal have become a significant concern for both the medical and the general community. Effective management of BMW is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. The present research aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding BMW in our institution.
Materials and methods: This study was an observational descriptive hospital-based cross-sectional study, among health care workers in different categories. The study was conducted over a period of two months in a tertiary care hospital and medical college. A structured questionnaire was formulated and validated for the study and responses were solicited from the participating study groups. The study group included the healthcare workers who were grouped into four strata/ subgroups as doctors (residents), nursing staff, laboratory technicians and class IV employees.
Results: While the knowledge regarding general biomedical waste practices was acceptable it was surprising to note that a huge majority lacked awareness regarding disposal of expired drugs. The attitude of workforce and practice of biomedical waste management in our institution has the authors feel has improved with time. Total 70% would like to receive training. However, the majority feels that their responsibility towards BMW management is an extra burden. Only 40% are immunized against Hepatitis B and this figure needs a huge improvement.
Conclusion: The study provides insight regarding the ‘functionality’ of biomedical waste management in our institution and provides useful indicators which will make BMW management more effective and efficient. It will also provide effective and efficient adherence to rules advocated by the pollution control board.
Malini A and Eshwar B. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Biomedical waste management among health care personnel in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. International Journal of Biomedical Research 2015;6(03):172-176.
Gayathri VP, Kamala P. Biomedical solid waste management in an Indian hospital, A case study. Waste Management. 2005;25: 592-599
Lohani N, Dixit S. Biomedical waste management practices in a tertiary care hospital: a descriptive study in Srinagar, Garhwal, India. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2017;4(2):465-470.
Collins CH, Kennedy DA. Microbiological hazards of occupation needle stick and sharps injuries. J Appl Bacteriol 1987;62:385-402.
Pruss A, Cirouit E, Rushbrook P. Definition and Characterization of Health-Care Waste. In Safe Management of Wastes From Health-Care Activities. Geneva: WHO; 1999:2-46.
Srivastav S, Kariwal P, Singh AK, Shrotriya VP. Evaluation of Biomedical Waste Management Practices in Multi-Speciality Tertiary Hospital. Indian Journal of Community Health 2010;21:46-50.
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences/ Volume2/Issue29/July 22, 2013 Page 5360-5365.
Rao PH. Report: Hospital waste management--awareness and practices: A study of three states in India. Waste Manage Res. 2008; 26:297-303.
Kishore J, Goel P, Sagar B, Joshi TK. Awareness about biomedical waste management and infection control among dentists of a teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. Indian J Dent Res. 2000;11:157-161
Datta P, Mohi GK, Chander J. Biomedical waste management in India:Critical appraisal. J Lab Physicians.2018;10:6-14.
Capoor MR, Bhowmik KT. Current perspectives on biomedical waste management: Rules, conventions and treatment technologies. Indian J Med Microbiol 2017;35:157-164.
Kumar R, Gupta AK, Aggarwal AK, Kumar A. A descriptive study on evaluation of bio-medical waste management in a tertiary care public hospital of North India. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2014;12:69.
Das SK, Biswas R. Awareness and practice of biomedical waste management among healthcare providers in a Tertiary Care Hospital of West Bengal, India. Int J Med Public Health. 2016; 6:19-25.
Gupta V, Mohapatra D, Kumar V. Study To Assess The Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of Biomedical Waste Management Among Health Care Personnel At Tertiary Care Hospital In Haryana Int J Basic Applied Med Sci. 2015;5(2):102-107. 15 Bansal M, Mishra A, Gautam P, Changulani R, Srivastava D, Gour NS.Knowledge and awareness regarding biomedical waste management among employees of a tertiary care hospital IJCM. 2013; 25(1):86-88.
Nema S, Singh A. Awareness and practices about health care waste management among hospital staff of a medical college hospital in Bhopal, Central India. Int J Recent Adv Multidisciplinary Res. 2015;2(7):518-521.
Wigan MR, Clarke R. Big data's big unintended consequences. Computer. 2013 Jun;46(6):46-53.
Ekbia H, Mattioli M, Kouper I, Arave G, Ghazinejad A, Bowman T, et al. Big data, bigger dilemmas: A critical review. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology [Internet]. Wiley; 2014 Dec 31;66(8):1523-1545.
McKee R. Ethical issues in using social media for health and health care research. Health Policy [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2013 May;110(2-3):298-301.
Newell S, Marabelli M. Strategic opportunities (and challenges) of algorithmic decision-making: A call for action on the long-term societal effects of ‘datification’. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems. 2015 Mar 1;24(1):3-14.
Benton A, Ungar L, Hill S, Hennessy S, Mao J, Chung A, Leonard CE, Holmes JH. Identifying potential adverse effects using the web: a new approach to medical hypothesis generation. J Biomed Inform. 2011 Dec;44(6):989-996.
Zimmer M. But the data is already public? On the ethics of research in Facebook. Ethics Inf Technol. 2010;12:25.
Julie Brill. Federal Trade Commission. Protecting Consumer Privacy in an Era of Rapid Change: A Discussion of the FTC's Privacy Report.https://www.ftc.gov/public-statements/ 2012/03/protecting-consumer-privacy-era-rapid-changediscussion- ftcs-privacy (last accessed on 27-08-2018).
European Parliament. Council of the European Union E. U. Directive, 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data. Off. J. EC. 1995;23(6):348/74–348/99.
Opinion 7/2015. Meeting the challenges of big data. European Data Protection Supervisor. Source: https://edps.europa. eu/sites/edp/files/publication/15-11-19_big_data_en.pdf accessed on 26-06-2018.
Hermanussen M, M de Los Angeles Roi de Lama, Romero AP, Ruiz CA, Burmeister J, Tresguerres JAF. “Differential catch-up in body weight and bone growth after short-term starvation in rats,” Growth Regulation 1996;6(4):230-237.
Banu MJ, Orhii PB, Mejia W et al.“Analysis of the effects of growth hormone, voluntary exercise, and food restriction on diaphyseal bone in female F344 rats,”Bone. 1999; 25(4):469-480.
Banu J, Orhii PB, Okafor MC, Wang L, Kalu DN. “Analysis of the effects of growth hormone, exercise and food on diaphyseal bone in female F344 rats,” Bone 1999; 25(4): 469-480.
Janiszewski P. Obesity Panacea – [News nutrition, peer reviewed research]:[Janiszewski]; [may 13, 2011] - The Science of Starvation: How long can humans survive without food or water?Available from http://blogs.plos.org/obesitypanacea/ about this blog.
Beresford D. Ten Men Dead. New York: Atlantic Press. 1997. ISBN 0-87113-702-X.
Srimat Bhagvatam. SB 4.8.71 - SB 4.8.79
Attia E. “Anorexia nervosa: current status and future directions,”Annual Review of Medicine 2010;61(1) 425-435.
Rosen JC, Reiter J, and Orosan P, “Assessment of body image in eating disorders with the body dysmorphic disorder examination,” Behaviour Research and Therapy 1995; 33(1):77–84.
Grinspoon S, Miller K, Coyle C et al., “Severity of osteopenia in estrogen-deficient women with anorexia nervosa and hypothalamic amenorrhea,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1999;84(6):2049-2055.
Biller BMK, Saxe V, Herzog D.B., Rosenthal DI, Holzman S, Klibanski A. “Mechanisms of osteoporosis in adult and adolescent women with anorexia nervosa,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1989; 68(3): 548-554.
Grinspoon S, Thomas E, Pitts S et al., “Prevalence and predictive factors for regional osteopenia in women with anorexia nervosa,” Annals of Internal Medicine 2000;133(10): 790-I42.
Rigotti NA, Neer RM, Skates SJ, Herzog DB, Nussbaum SR, “The clinical course of osteoporosis in anorexia nervosa. A longitudinal study of cortical bone mass,” The Journal of the American Medical Association 1991;265(9): 1133-1138.
Baker D, Roberts R, Towell T, “Factors predictive of bone mineral density in eating-disordered women: a longitudinal study,” International Journal of Eating Disorders 2000;27(1): 29-35.
Khosla S, Lufkin EG, Hodgson SF, Fitzpatrick LA, Melton LJ III, “Epidemiology and clinical features of osteoporosis in younindividuals,” Bone 1994;15(5):551-555.
Zipfel S, Seibel MJ, Löwe B, Beumont PJ, Kasperk C, Herzog W. “Osteoporosis in eating disorders: a follow-up study of patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2001;86(11):5227–5233.
Soyka LA, Grinspoon S, Levitsky LL, Herzog DB, Klibanski A. “The effects of anorexia nervosa on bone metabolism in female adolescents,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1999;84(12):4489-4496.
LA Soyka, M. Misra, A. Frenchman et al., “Abnormal bone mineral accrual in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa,”Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2002; 87(9):4177-4185.
MM LaBan, JC Wilkins, AH Sackeyfio, and RS Taylor, “Osteoporotic stress fractures in anorexia nervosa: etiology, diagnosis, and review of four cases,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1995;76(9):884-887.
Y Maugars, J.-M. Berthelot, S. Lalande, C. Charlier, and A. Prost, “Osteoporotic fractures revealing anorexia nervosa in five females,” Revue du Rhumatisme (English Edition) 1996; 63(3):201–206.
Golden NH et al. Resumption of Menses in Anorexia Nervosa. Arch Pediatr Adolesc med 1997;151:16-21.
Audi L et al. Leptin in Relation to Resumption of Menses in Women with Anorexia Nervosa. Mol Psychiatry 1998;4:544-547.
Mehanna HM, Moledina J, Travis J. “Refeeding syndrome: what it is, and how to prevent and treat it”. BMJ 2008; 336: 1495 8. doi:10.1136/bmj.a301.PMC 2440847. PMID 18583681.
“The Physiology and Treatment of Starvation”. US national library of medicine. Retrieved 17 August 2012. chromeextension://mhjfbmdgcfjbbpaeojofohoefgiehjai/index.html
Kreipe R et al. Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Older Children. Pediatrics in Review 1999; 20:12.
Pike KM et al. Cognitive Behavior Therapy in the Posthospitalization. Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa. Am J Pyschiatry 2004; 11:2046-2049.
Bender DA. Carbohydrates of Physiologic Significance. Murray RK, Bender DA, Botham KM, Kenelly PJ, Rodwell VW, Weil PA.. Harpers Illustrated Biochemistry 28th ed. New York:Mc Graw Hill publications; 2009. p 113-120.
Koffler M, Kisch ES. Starvation diet and very-low-calorie diets may Induce insulin resistance and overt diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Complications.1996;10(2):109-12.
Hales CN, Barker DJ The thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Br Med Bull. 2001;60:5-20.
Hales CN, Barker DJ (July 1992). “Type 2 (non-insulindependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis”. Diabetologia. 35 (7): 595-601.
Barker, D.J.P. (1997). “Maternal Nutrition, Fetal Nutrition, and Disease in Later Life”. Nutrition, ‘13’, pp. 807.
Martin, Paul; Bateson, Patrick (1999). Design for a life: How behaviour develops. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224- 05064-8 pp. 110-111.
Barker, DJP. ed. (1992). Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. London: British Medical Journal. ISBN 0-7279-0743-3.
Robinson R (February 2001). “The fetal origins of adult disease: No longer just a hypothesis and may be critically important in south Asia”. Editorial
Mazur A. Why were “starvation diets” promoted for diabetes in the pre-insulin period? Nutrition Journal 2011;10:23.
Goodacre CJ, Kan JY, Rungcharassaeng K. Clinical complications of osseointegrated implants. J Prosthet Dent 1999 May;81(5):537-552.
Evans CD, Chen ST. Esthetic outcomes of immediate implant placements. Clin Oral Implants Res 2008 Jan;19(1):73-80.
Romeo E, Lops D, Rossi A, Storelli S, Rozza R, Chiapasco M. Surgical and prosthetic management of interproximal region with single-implant restorations: 1-year prospective study. J Periodontol 2008 Jun;79(6):1048-1055.
Nagaraj KR, Savadi CR, Savadi AR, Prashanth Reddy GT, Srilakshmi J, Dayalan M, John J. Gingival biotype— prosthodontic perspective. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2010 Mar;10(1):27-30.
Jung RE, Sailer I, Hämmerle CH, Attin T, Schmidlin P. In vitro color changes of soft tissues caused by restorative materials. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2007 Jun;27(3): 251-257.