[Year:2020] [Month:July-December] [Volume:4] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:95 - 102]
Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic by World Health Organization on March 11, 2020, is caused by corona viruses which is highly contagious with enveloped positive-sense RNA particles with a size of 60–140 nm in diameter. The COVID-19 infection may be an asymptomatic, mild, moderate or severe illness with severe potentially lethal complications, such as severe pneumonia, respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and septic shock due to induction of cytological storm. Diagnostic confirmation is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The treatment is mainly symptomatic with management of complications. Antiviral drugs like lopinavir administration have not been proven very useful and other drugs, such as Arbidol and favipiravir have some hope. Remdesivir, a drug approved by USFDA, has shown benefits in critical patients with COVID-19 infection. The mode of action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is via immunomodulatory effects. Ministry of AYUSH has recommended intake of ayurvedic herbal drugs like curcumin, tulsi, cinnamon, black pepper, ashwagandha, shunthi (dry ginger), and regular yoga. Curcumin and garlic are important anticytokine agents and decrease various substances like interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and IL-12 by macrophages with additional fibrinolytic and antiplatelet aggregatory actions. Amla is an immunity booster. Tulsi due to phytocompounds and apigenin might be useful in COVID-19 infection. Cinnamomum has eugenol with antiviral activity. Black pepper suppresses the nuclear factor kappa-B signaling pathway. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) decreases various proinflammatory chemokines IL-8 and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted. Mulethi has saponins which inhibit in vitro several DNA- and RNA-viruses. Thus, Indian herbal system of Ayurveda is very useful in COVID-19 infection.