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2022 | January-June | Volume 6 | Issue 1

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Anterpreet Arora, Richa Ghay Thaman

A Golden Century – 100 Years of Saving Discovery

[Year:2022] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1 - 2]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0150  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Punita Sharma, Manisha Nagpal, Sahiba Kukreja, Sukhjinder Kaur Dhillon

Readiness for Self-directed Learning among Undergraduate Medical Students of Northern India

[Year:2022] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:3 - 7]

Keywords: Medical students, Readiness, Self-directed learning, Undergraduate

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0144  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Medical students are expected to possess lifelong learning skills to keep themselves updated with the continuous advances in the field of medicine. This study was undertaken to assess the readiness for self-directed learning (SDL) among undergraduate medical students and to see the effect of strategies implemented to do so. Materials and methods: Assessment of readiness for SDL was done among undergraduate medical students of the 2018 batch and the 2019 batches using the 29-item self-directed learning readiness scale (SDLRS) questionnaire covering three major domains, namely, “self-management,” “desire for learning,” and “self-control.” Data management and analysis were done by using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS, version 20, software. Mann–Whitney U was applied and p <0.05 was considered as a statistically significant result in the inferential statistics. Results: The total of 295 students participated in the study, 148 from the 2018 batch and 147 from the 2019 batch. The median for overall SDL readiness was 4 (3–4) for the 2019 batch, whereas it was 3 (3–4) for the 2018 batch. The self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) across all three domains of self-management, self-control, and desire for learning was significantly lower for the 2018 batch than that of the 2019 batch of students (p <0.001). Conclusion: A statistically significant difference was observed in the readiness for SDL between the 2019 batch and the 2018 batch. The reason identified was the use of various teaching modalities to impart SDL skills to the 2019 batch. Significance: The study emphasizes that SDL in medical courses is helpful to promote lifelong learning skills for medical students.



Seema Sehmi

Azygos Venous System Variations: A Clinical Review

[Year:2022] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:8 - 11]

Keywords: Azygos, Embryology, Review, Radiologists

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0149  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To study and analyze the common as well as rare anatomical variations of the azygos venous system along with their embryological aspect available in the literature. Background: The azygos system of veins comprises azygos, hemiazygos, and accessory hemiazygos veins that act as a connecting channel between the inferior vena cava and superior vena cava. Results: The review of research studies of the azygos venous system in the literature and in the cadaveric studies demonstrated a wide range of variations in the origin, course, number of tributaries, and termination. The results may contribute to the anatomical knowledge and training of students as well as clinicians in addition to supporting future research. Conclusion: Anatomical variations of the azygos venous system can affect patient outcomes indirectly. Therefore, anatomical knowledge of all possible variations of the azygos venous system should be clearly understood. Clinical significance: Each anomaly of the azygos venous system along with its embryology and clinical significance is of utmost importance for radiologists, surgeons, and clinicians in their respective fields.



Simarjit Singh, Amit Dhawan, Tejinder Kaur, Ramandeep Singh Bhullar, Sarika Kapila

Anterior-based Tongue Flap for the Closure of Posterior Palatal Defect: A Case Report

[Year:2022] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:12 - 14]

Keywords: Facial artery musculomucosal flap, Palatal fistula, Tongue flap

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0143  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this case report is to analyze the use of anterior-based tongue flaps for the closure of posterior palatal defects. Background: Palatal fistulas following trauma, benign or malignant pathology, and congenital defects are debilitating conditions rendering patients difficulty in swallowing and speech impairment. Reconstruction of such defects is challenging due to the scarcity of soft tissues for primary closure. Tongue flap has proved to be a safe and effective method of restoring functionality with acceptable donor site morbidity. Case description: In this study, the authors present a case in which an anterior-based tongue flap and facial artery musculomucosal (FAMM) flap were used to close the posterior palatal fistula and oroantral communication, respectively. Conclusion: The tongue flap remains the flap of choice for managing anterior palatal fistulae, leaving apart its only drawback of two-staged procedure and transient patient discomfort. Clinical significance: Tongue flap, commonly termed “workhorse flap“ in the repair of palatal defects, is recommended provided that patient selection and surgical technique are meticulous.



Gurinder Mohan, Hargurdas Singh, Kapeesh Khanna, Sankalp Harish Jagga, Karandeep Kaur

C1q Nephropathy: A Rare Cause of Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults

[Year:2022] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:15 - 17]

Keywords: C1q nephropathy, Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Nephrotic syndrome, Proteinuria, Systemic lupus erythematosus

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0146  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


C1q nephropathy first described in 1985 is a rare cause of glomerular diseases, especially in adults, but still not much is known about and lacks specific guidelines. The diagnosis is based on mesangial C1q deposition either dominant or codominant pattern in the absence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we report a 28-year-old female who presented with anasarca, frank nephrotic syndrome, and hypertension. Also, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) was negative and renal biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) morphological pattern along with mesangial C1q predominant staining with primary podocytopathy and mesangial electron-dense immune deposits on electron microscopy. The diagnosis of C1q Nephropathy was made and oral steroids were started. The minimal change disease (MCD) pattern has better outcomes than FSGS. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis might respond poorly or gets dependent on oral steroids and often requires second-line immunosuppressive therapy.



Hwee-Ming Cheng, See-Ziau Hoe

Using Portmanteau to Create Meanings in New Physiology Words

[Year:2022] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:18 - 22]

Keywords: Definitions, Mechanisms, Physiology, Portmanteau, Understanding

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0139  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Words and definitions frame our understanding. In learning physiology, precise words used that explain specific physiology help to conceptualize essential homeostatic events in the body. The combination of two keywords into one (portmanteau) can effectively aid the appreciation of physiological mechanisms. For example, the portmanteau “natriuresis” expresses the dual responses in the urinary excretion of excess water and sodium during renal compensation for both positive sodium and positive water status. Physiology teachers can create their own portmanteau to engage their classes. Students can also try integrating words to make physiology portmanteau to stimulate and summarize their own understanding.


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